Planet Earth has a total surface of 510.1 million square kilometers, of which 70.9% is ocean. About 80% of the planet’s landmass falls within 10 degrees latitude of the equator. The highest mountain peaks lie along the margins of the continents, while the lowest points occur in the polar regions. The largest body of freshwater is found in Antarctica, covering almost half of the continent; it contains 90% of the world’s ice sheets.
The world’s deep oceans and seas are the largest and deepest bodies of water on Earth. The greatest volume of liquid covers the Indian Ocean, followed by the Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean. The deepest part of the sea lies beneath the Mariana Trench in the western North Pacific, reaching a depth of 11.5 kilometers (7.2 mi). This trench extends much further north than most people realize – the Arctic Ocean is actually deeper than the Mediterranean Sea. In addition, there are several large trenches around the globe, including the Tasman, Japan, Peru–Chile, Mozambique, New Hebrides, and Aleutian Trenches. These bodies of water are separated from each other by plate boundaries, such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge separating Africa and South America, and the East China Sea Basin separating Asia and Australia.
The world’s deepest point is located at the bottom of the Mariana Trench, where the pressure is so great that it can be measured using a barometer. It is also one of the few places on Earth where earthquakes have been recorded. The deepest known point on land is Mount Everest, which reaches an elevation of 8,848 meters (29,029 ft) above sea level.
The Deepest Ocean In The World is Pacific Ocean
The Pacific Ocean is the world’s deepest ocean and water body – with an average depth of about 4,280m, and a maximum depth (at Challenger Deep) of 10,911m.
The Atlantic Ocean has an average of 3,646m, making it the third most-dense ocean by average depth, and the third-deepest by maximum depth.
The Indian Ocean has an average of 3741m, making it the second deepest ocean by average depth. But it is 7,258m deep at the deepest point – making it the third deepest.
Deep Ocean Exploration:
A video featuring Dr. Robert Ballard, who made the first discovery of the Titanic wreck in 1985. Ballard was able to use side scan sonar equipment to detect the wreckage of the ship below the seafloor.
The ocean doesn’t just contain vast expanses of water; it holds some of the most extreme environments on Earth. Here are the 10 deepest seas around the globe.
1. Carribean Sea: 6,890 m
2. North Pacific Subtropical Gyre: 6,800 m
3. Gulf Stream: 6,700 m
4. Mediterranean Sea: 6,640 m
5. Black Sea: 6,600 m
6. North Atlantic Central Water: 6,400 m
7. Red Sea: 6,300 m
8. Arctic Ocean: 6,200 m
9. Indian Ocean: 6,100 m
10. Antarctic Circumpolar Current: 5,900 m
10 Deepest Parts Of The Ocean
1. Mariana Trench
The world’s deepest spot is located in the Western Pacific Ocean, about halfway between Japan and Hawaii. Named after the USS Challenger, the ship used to explore it, the trench is actually much deeper than the famous Mt. Everest. At 9,049 meters deep, it is also the deepest place in the entire planet’s crust.
2. Tonga Trench
The Tonga Trench is located in the Southwest Pacific Ocean and at the northern end of the Kermadec Subduction Zone. This deep underwater trench stretches about 10,880 km from New Zealand’s North Island northeast to the tiny island of Tongatapu.
This trench is considered the second deepest place on Earth behind the Challenger Deep. At a depth of 11,034 meters, it is far deeper than Mount Everest, which stands at 8,848 meters above sea level.
According to researchers, the sedimentary rocks of the Tonga Trench are rich in fossils of trilobites, brachiopods and crinoids. These creatures lived during the Cambrian Period, which lasted from 542 million to 485 million years ago.
Researchers have also discovered that the Tonga Trench contains roundworm communities. Scientists believe that the worms live in the sediment because there aren’t many oxygen levels in such depths.
3. Philippine Trench
The Philippine Trench is one of the most prominent features in the Philippine Sea. This trench is named after the island nation of the Philippines. Located in the west side of the Philippine Sea, it extends in a length of 1.32 kilometers and spans over 30 kilometers wide.
This trench was formed because of the collision between the Eurasian Plate and the smaller Philippine plate in the early Miocene epoch. Scientists consider this trench as one of the planet’s deepest points.
4. Kuril- Kamchatka Trench
The Kuril-Kamchatka Trench is another deep trench located in the north Pacific Ocean, lying about 200 kilometers west of Japan. This trench belongs to the Pacific Plate and it stretches along the Kuril Islands and Kamchatka Peninsula. With a depth of around 10.5 km, this trench is one of the deepest parts of the Pacific Ocean.
This trench is believed to have been formed during the Late Jurassic period, when the Philippine Sea plate collided into the Eurasian plate. Due to this collision, the Pacific Plate moved towards the northwest direction and later on it subducted beneath the Asian continent. As a result, the Pacific Plate was pushed up and the continental crust became thinner. In addition, there are some volcanoes present along the trench such as Mount Fujiyama, Mount Erebus, Mount Baker, Mount Saint Helens, etc., which are also related to the subduction process.
5. Kermadec Trench
The Kermadec Trenches are located off New Zealand’s east coast. They are formed by the subduction of oceanic crust beneath continental crust. These trenches form during convergent plate boundaries where one tectonic plate moves underneath another.
The Kermadecs are part of the larger Kermadec–Tongan Subduction Zone, which extends about 2,000 kilometers along the Pacific rim of the Earth’s southern hemisphere. This zone includes several deep ocean trenches, such as the Mariana Trough, the Japan Trench, and the Aleutian Trench.
6. Izu-Ogasawara Trench
Located in the western Pacific Ocean lies the Izu-Ogashima Trench, which is an extension of the Izu Trench. This deep trench extends from Japan to the northern part of the Mariana Trough, and is also an extension to the Japan Trench. The deepest spot in this trench is located near the Izu Islands off the coast of Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan.
The Izu-Ogasawa Trench runs along the island chain of Izu-Ogasawaras, and is about 10 km wide. At a depth of 9.78 km, it is one of the world’s deepest trenches.
7. Japan Trench
The Japan Trench is one of the most active trenches in the world. Because it is an important location for oil exploration, it is subject to frequent seismic activity. In addition, there are many volcanoes in the area.
This trench extends from the Kuril Islands in the north to the Bonin Islands in the south. Its deepest spot reaches a depth of 9 kilometers.
In the northeast, the Japan Trench ends at the Kuril Ridge, where the Kurils form a chain of volcanic islands. To the southwest, the Japan Trench continues into the Izu Peninsula.
To the west, the Japan Trench merges with the Izu-Oga Trench. This is the continuation of the Izu-Bonin Trench, which runs along the entire length of the island arc.
8. Puerto Rico Trench
Located between the Caribbean Sea and Atlantic Ocean, the Puerto Rican trench marks the deepest point on the planet and the eighth deepest point on the Earth’s surface, according to the USGS. This trench lies at a depth of about 8.6 kilometers and spans around 800km.
The Puerto Rico trench is located near the coast of Puerto Rico, where it is believed that it could be one of the most active areas on the planet due to the frequent earthquakes and tsunamis that are caused by the movement of tectonic plates.
In fact, the Puerto Rican trench has been responsible for several devastating tsunami events. In 1868, the San Fermín tsunami hit the island, killing thousands of people and causing $1 billion worth of damage. Another event took place in 1928, when the Great Santurce Earthquake struck.
Researchers believe that the Puerto Rico trench is still very much unexplored, and efforts for a complete mapping of the area have been ongoing since 1964. A robotic vehicle was sent to this part of the world in 2012, and the data collected there helped scientists better understand the geology of the region.
9. South Sandwich Trench
The deepest trench in the Atlantic ocean after the Puerto Rico Trench, the South Sandwich Trench is located off the coast of Antarctica, where the South America plate is being subducted under the smaller South Sandwich plate. The trench is named after the South Sandwich Islands, which are part of the British overseas territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha. The trench is known as “Meteor Deep”, because of the large number of meteorites found there.
10. Peru–Chile Trench
The Peru–Chile Trough, sometimes referred to as the Atacama Trench, is located around 160 km offshore of Peru and Chile in easternmost Pacific Ocean. The trench has a maximum depth of approximately 8.1 km below sea level. Its deepest point is called Richards Deep. The trench measures over 5,900 km long and 64 km wide, covering an area of about 589,000 sq km. The trench was formed due to convergence between the subducting North America Plate and the South American plate.
Frequently Asked Questions about the deepest parts of the Oceans
The Mariana Trench is located in the western Pacific Ocean, near Guam. Its name comes from the USS Mariana, a World War II battleship that sank there in 1944. This trench is the deepest place on Earth, reaching depths of over 36,000 feet. It is also one of the least explored areas of the world, due to its extreme conditions. Temperatures drop well into the negative numbers Celsius range during winter months, while water pressure is extremely high.
2. Has anyone been to the bottom of the Mariana Trench?
Victor Vescovo set out to break his own record for deepest dive ever. He dove down to 35,853 feet, breaking the previous record held by Jacques Piccard. At that depth, he encountered water pressure equivalent to about 5,200 pounds per square inch — enough to crush most things. But Vescovo survived. “I don’t know how I did it,” he told reporters. “But I’m very happy.”
The feat took place off the coast of San Juan Island in Washington state. A team of scientists and engineers accompanied him during the dive. They used sonar equipment to measure the temperature and salinity of the ocean floor. They also tested the suit he wore to make sure it could withstand the extreme pressures.
Vescovo had already broken several other diving records, including the deepest solo dive, longest single breath hold and fastest ascent. In fact, he holds the world record for the highest altitude reached while breathing air.
3. What are the five deepest parts of oceans?
The Mariana Trench of 3.9 miles (6 km),
the Puerto Rico Trench of 4.2 miles (7 km),
the Diamantina trench of 5.1 miles (8.5 km),
the South Sandwich Trench of 7.4 miles (12 km),
the North Pole Trench of 9.0 miles (14.5 km).
4. What is the 2nd deepest part of the ocean?
Tonga Trench is 35,722 feet deep and is the world’s second deepest trench located off the coast of New Zealand. It is named for the Kingdom of Tonga, which is situated near it. The trench is the site of the Mariana Arc, one of the largest subduction zones in the world. This zone extends about 3,500 miles along the western boundary of the Pacific Ocean.
The Mariana Arc is responsible for creating the Hawaiian Islands and most of the islands around Japan. The arc is also where the Nazca Plate is being forced under the South American Plate. The Mariana Arc is considered to be the third oldest active tectonic plate boundary in the world.
5. Does anything live at the bottom of the Mariana Trench?
The deepest part of Earth’s oceans is home to some pretty weird creatures. Scientists say there are five different types of animals living down there, including xenophyophores, amphiopsids, sea cucumbers, as well as fish and crustaceans. They’ve been named after Greek mythological figures because no one knows what they look like. Some scientists think that the organisms live in symbiotic relationships with bacteria.
6. What would happen to the human body if it were placed in the deepest parts of the ocean?
The human body would be crushed under the immense pressure of the water. If you put someone in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean, he/she would drown within minutes because there isn’t enough air to breathe. The pressure of the water is around 15 times greater than atmospheric pressure. At the bottom of the Mariana Trench, the pressure reaches up to 14.7 million pounds per square inch. This makes the pressure equivalent to about 50 tons of weight being applied to every square inch of skin.
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10. Are These Things Underwater Mountains?
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9. Is That Thing Moving Across The Ocean?
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