The giant armadillo is one of the largest species of armadillos. They are native to Central America and South America, where they live in tropical forests. A few subspecies occur in southern Mexico, some islands off the coast of Panama, and parts of Venezuela. This species lives primarily in rainforests, although it does inhabit dry areas during wet seasons.
They reach lengths of up to 2 meters (6.5 ft). Their bodies weigh about 16 kg (35 lb), making them heavier than most other armadillos. Males and females look similar, except that males have longer tails and smaller heads. Females usually give birth every three to five years.
This species is omnivorous, eating insects, fruit, seeds, leaves, flowers, roots, tubers, and small vertebrates such as lizards, snakes, birds, frogs, and rodents. Armadillos eat large amounts of food, consuming up to half their body weight daily. They store extra food in special cheek pouches.
Armadillos spend much of their day resting. When threatened, they curl into a ball called a “tortoise roll.” They can run very fast, reaching speeds of up to 30 km/h (19 mph).
Armadillos have a long snout and short legs. Their front feet have four toes, while their hind feet have three toes. Each toe has a claw at the end. These claws help them dig burrows, which they use for shelter and protection from predators. Some species have been known to build nests out of sticks and mud.
Armadillosaurs went extinct around 65 million years ago. However, there are still living relatives today, including the kangaroo rat and the naked mole rat.
The six-banded armadorid lizards are found throughout North America and Central America, ranging from southern Mexico southward through most of South America and into the Caribbean. They live primarily in dry forests, grasslands, savannas, woodlands, and scrubland. Six-banded armadillos are omnivores, eating insects, small vertebrates, seeds, fruits, flowers, roots, tubers, and occasionally carrion.
Six-banded armadillas are nocturnal animals, spending much of daylight hours asleep in nests constructed under logs or rocks. Armadillos are known to use tools such as sticks and stones to dig burrows where they sleep during the day. Six-banded arms also use their snouts to push over vegetation in order to access underground food sources.
Armadillos are capable of digging up to 20 meters deep in search of food, although most do not go deeper than 5 m. They generally move about 15 km per night, often in large groups. In addition to being able to run very quickly, armadillos can swim well, moving rapidly across water. When threatened, armadillos curl themselves into balls, raising their bodies off the ground and exposing their vulnerable underside to predators. If caught, armadillos will bite and claw their captors.
They typically give birth to one young every 2–3 years, though some females may bear several litters annually. Females usually produce twins or triplets; however, there are reports of quadruplets born in captivity. Males reach sexual maturity at 3–4 years old, while females mature at 4–5 years old. Mating occurs once a year, beginning in January or February. A female may lay 10–20 eggs each month, with the average clutch size being 12–14.
A study published in 2012 suggested that climate change could affect the reproductive cycle of six-banded armadas. As temperatures rise, it might become harder for males to find mates, leading to fewer offspring. However, the researchers noted that the effect on reproduction was likely to be minor because the population had already been declining due to habitat loss and hunting.
Distribution and habitat
Giant armadillo distribution ranges from southern Mexico northwards into Central America, across Panama and Colombia, along the Venezuelan coast, and up the Orinoco River valley in Venezuela and Guyana. Their presence extends further northward into northern South America, where they are present in Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, and far northeastern Brazil. They do not occur in the Amazon Basin nor in the Caribbean region.
The giant armadillo occurs in tropical rainforests, dry deciduous forest, savanna, and xeric scrub. Its preferred habitat is seasonally flooded floodplains, particularly those associated with rivers. However, it can survive in drier areas, such as semi-arid regions, where it digs burrows in sandy soils. These animals prefer relatively undisturbed areas, avoiding human settlements and agricultural land. They live near water sources, especially during the wet seasons. During the dry months, they seek out deep, moist soil in which to hibernate.
Biology and behavior
Giant armadillos spend most of their lives underground, emerging to feed during daylight hours. They are primarily nocturnal, though some individuals have been observed active during the daytime. They prefer dry environments where there are few obstacles such as trees or rocks.
Armadillos live alone and do not form social groups. However, young giant armadillos sometimes travel together. Although they are generally solitary animals, they occasionally make contact with conspecifics.
The diet consists mainly of termites, ants, spiders and other invertesbrate prey. In addition, they eat small amounts of fruit, seeds, roots, bulbs and tubers. Their stomach contents include bones, hair, feathers, skin scales, eggs, feces, dung, carrion, insects, plant material and soil.
Little is known about the reproduction of the giant armadillo. Females give birth to one offspring each year. Males reach sexual maturity around three months old and begin courting females shortly thereafter. Mating occurs once per night, and gestation lasts approximately four weeks. Females typically give birth to litters of up to five cubs. Newborns weigh about 2 kg (4 lb 8 oz), and grow rapidly over the next two months. Subadult males remain with the mother throughout her pregnancy and lactation period, while adult males leave the group soon after giving birth. Youngsters usually accompany their mothers for several days after weaning, and may help care for them. After a female gives birth, she continues to nurse her offspring for another month.
The giant armadillo is the largest living member of the Dasypodidae family. Its body length ranges from 2.4 to 3 meters (7.5–10 feet), while its weight varies from 80 to 150 kilograms (176–330 pounds). It is native to Central America and Mexico, where it lives primarily in forests and grasslands.
Hunted throughout its range, the giant armadillo provides food for many indigenous people, including the Maya, Tzeltal, Chol and Mazatec. In Guatemala, the animal is hunted for its meat, which is considered a delicacy; however, the meat is usually boiled prior to consumption. Giant armadillos are occasionally taken alive for use as pets, though this practice is banned in several countries. They are often killed for their skins, which are used to make wallets, purses, belts and shoes.
In addition, live giant armodillos are frequently captured and sold on the black market, where they are typically kept in small cages. These captive animals inevitably die during transport or in captivity. Although there are no reliable estimates of how many giant armadillos exist in the wild, the IUCN Red List lists the total population size as being “vulnerable”.
Despite its wide distribution, the giant armadilla is locally rare. As such, it is listed as vulnerable on the IUCN Red Data Book. However, it is classified as Least Concern on the CITES Appendix II list of threatened species.